One of the wold's most prevalent eye diseases

Dry Eye Disease

Get Freedom From Dry Eyes!


“Dry eye is a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface characterized by a loss of homeostasis of the tear film, and accompanied by ocular symptoms, in which tear film instability and hyperosmolarity, ocular surface inflammation and damage, and neurosensory abnormalities play etiological roles.” 

Tear Film and Ocular Surface Dry Eye Workshop, 2017  

The tear film is incredibly complex, made up of >1500 proteins, electrolytes, mucins, (O)-Acylated ω-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFAs), cholestryl esters and wax esters. It has two dynamic layers; the surface lipid layer which prevents evaporation of your tears and stabilises the tear film; and the inner mucoaqueous layer which lubricates and provides nutrients to the ocular surface, and defends against infection. Normally, tear production and evaporation and drainage are in equilibrium. If something disrupts this balance, it leads to increased tear saltiness, inflammation, potential damage to the ocular surface and dry eye symptoms. 


If the lipid layer is deficient, it thins and breaks in between blinks, and mucoaqueous tears start to evaporate. In response the lacrimal glands are stimulated by a neural reflex arc to produce more mucoaqueous tears to protect the integrity of the ocular surface, often leading to wateriness, but not relief of symptoms. This lipid layer is produced by meibomian glands in the upper and lower eyelids. Problems with the quality or quantity of oils produced by these glands may lead to obstruction and inflammation, and is a condition termed Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD) or posterior blepharitis. 


If the mucoaqueous layer is deficient, there is not enough volume to sufficiently lubricate the eye on blinking, leading to discomfort due to friction and potentially ocular surface damage from desiccation. The mucoaqueous layer is produced by the lacrimal gland and accessory glands Krause and Wolfring. 



  • Itching 
  • Burning 
  • Grittiness 
  • Stinging 
  • Discomfort 
  • Redness 
  • Pain 
  • Wateriness 
  • Discharge 
  • Light sensitivity 
  • Tired eyes 
  • Blurred or fluctuating vision 
  • Puffy eyelids 
  • Eyelash scales 

These symptoms may be worse first thing in the morning or at the end of the day. 

Exacerbated by computer or device use, driving, contact lens wear, cold, dry or windy environments. 

  • Ageing 
  • Female 
  • Ethnicity 
  • Hormonal changes 
  • Blepharitis 
  • Meibomian gland dysfunction 
  • Environmental factors 
  • Other health conditions 
  • Some medications 
  • Contact lens wear 
  • Reduced blink rate 
  • Abnormal lid position 
  • Previous eye injury or surgery 


Diagnostics in our comprehensive consultation assesses symptomology, tear stability and volume, including anterior eye examination, inflammatory markers, tear osmolarity, interferometry, meibography and esthesiometry. 

  • Lid hygiene 
  • Ocular lubricants 
  • Eye-light Intense pulsed light (IPL) and low level light therapy (LLLT) photobiomodulation mask 
  • Tixel 
  • Punctal plugs 


Dry eye is a chronic, management condition. This means it is long-term and can recur, perhaps seasonally or if something disrupts balance of the tear film. It requires ongoing management to maintain comfort, and treatment of the underlying cause. 


Find out if you’re a suitable candidate for dry eye treatments by booking a free consultation at Cathedral Eye Clinic.

Simply fill out the form below, and a member of our team will be delighted to assist you.